جام

جام آفرینی؛ آغاز لذت نوشیدن در تاریخ و زندگی

جام های مخصوص نوشیدنی قدمتی دیرینه در تاریخ بشر دارند اما بر اساس مدارک تاریخی ساخت آن به شکل امروزی، حداقل از 600 سال قبل به این سو رواج داشته است.

جام آفرینی؛ آغاز لذت نوشیدن در تاریخ و زندگی

تاریخچه جام

مستندات موجود نشان می دهند که ظروف نوشیدنی ساده ای که محصولات سفالگری بودند از چهار هزار و پانصد سال قبل از میلاد مسیح مورد استفاده انسان ها بوده اند. اما در عصر برنز حدودا بین دوهزار و پانصد و یک هزار و پانصد قبل از میلاد تکنیک ها و فن آوری فلزکاری پدیدار شد و توسعه پیدا کرد. نتیجه این توسعه ساخته شدن ابزارهایی از برنز و طلا بود.

جام آفرینی به شکل اولیه آن از این دوران آغاز شده است. ورود شراب، سفالگری و فلزات گران بها، در پی استیلای امپراتوری روم بوجود آمد. صنعت فلز کاری تا عصر حاضر توسعه پیدا کرده و پیشرفت و شکوفایی چشمگیری یافته است.

پیاله های نوشیدنی دوره قرون وسطی که جام های چوبی بزرگ بودند، در مپل وود ساخته می شدند. نمونه هایی از این دست با تزئینات نقره در پایه و دور لبه پیاله ها یافته شده است. این الگو در قرن های بعد نیز به الگوی ساخت ظروف نوشیدنی تبدیل شد و ساخت خلاقانه پیاله های نارگیلی نیز با همین الگو انجام شدند.

به مرور زمان مردم متوجه شدند که نقره رسانای حرارتی خوبی است و حس نرمی و گرمای خوبی به نوشیدنی می بخشد. به علاوه به نظر می رسید که نقره به عنوان وسیله ای تزئینی برای زیبایی بخشیدن به خانه و ساختمان های ویژه بسیار کارآمد است.

مستندات تاریخی حکایت از آن دارند که در اواسط قرن پانزدهم اصیل زادگان ( طبقه اجتماعی زمین داران و مالکان در انگلستان ) مجموعه هایی از جام ها و فنجان های سخته شده از نقره داشته اند. این نشان می دهد که جام ، بصورتی که ما امروزه می شناسیم از 600 سال قبل به این سو بدون تغییر اساسی وجود داشته است.

جام آفرینی مدرن

با این حال جام های مدرن اگرچه در شکل آن تفاوت اساسی با نمونه های قدیمی ندارد، اما در مواد سازنده آن ها نو آوری هایی اتفاق افتاده است. امروزه بیشتر ظروف نوشیدنی بجای نقره از شیشه و کریستال ساخته می شوند.

از قرن هفدهم، باورهای غلطی رواج یافت که جام های نقره برای سلامتی بهتر از ظروف نوشیدنی چوبی هستند. این موضوع تقاضا برای ظروف نقره را در برابر ظروف چوبی افزایش داد. اما استفاده از نقره برای بخش بزرگی از جامعه به دلیل قیمت بالای آن امکان پذیر نبود و این ظروف لوکس در انحصار ثروتمندان تا زمان کاهش قیمت آن در قرون بعدی باقیماند.

در اواسط قرن هفدهم دسترسی به جام های شیشه ای ، در کنار قیمت های بالای ظروف ساخته شده از فلزات گران بها، باعث انتقال فرهنگ مصرف سمت به استفاده از فنجان های دو دسته ای و جایگزینی آن با ظروف طلا و نقره در خانه ها شد.

جام های نقره ای عتیقه

جام های نقره ای عتیقه همچنان در خانه های مدرن دارای جایگاهی است. معماری داخلی متاخر ، به استفاده از قطعات ساخته شده از فلزات روی آورده است و از مواد اولیه قابل استفاده در تزئین منازل بهره می گیرد. قطعاتی با کیفیت تکنولوژی لیزر بصورت انبوه تولید می شوند که در طراحی خود از ظروف نقره استرلینگ لوکس الهام گرفته اند.

جام شیشه ای

مانند سنگ های قیمتی، شیشه نیز از دیر باز برای مقاصد تزئینی به کار می رفته است. فرعون ها از آن به عنوان جواهرات پوشیدنی و کالاهای مخصوص تشییع جنازه، و دیگر مقاصد ویژه استفاده می کردند. اما تولید جام های شیشه ای از مدیترانه و مصر در قرن شانزدهم قبل از میلاد آغاز شد.

در دوره سلسله هیجدهم مصر، جام های شیشه ای تحت سلطه خانواده سلطنتی به عنوان هدیه به اشخاص قدرتمند اهدا می شد. به عنوان مثال جام پاتلا ، ظرفی مقدس برای اهدای شراب قربانی شده برای خدایان بود.

اما زمانی که ساختن شیشه شفاف از حدود قرن هشتم قبل از میلاد شروع شد، شفافیت آن ابعاد جدیدی را به روی صنعت جام آفرینی باز کرد. این زیبایی یکی از دلایل جایگزینی شیشه بجلی نقره و دیگر فلزات گران بها در تولید ظروف نوشیدنی شد.

با رشد تکنولوژی و توسعه مواد پیشرفته برای تولید شیشه و پیشرفت در تکنیک های تزئین و دکور، آزادی بیشتری در شکل دادن به ظروف شیشه ای بوجود آمد. جام های شیشه ای با برای مصارف مختلف در اشکال مختلف طراحی شدند و امروزه حتی ظروفی به شکل مجسمه های پیچیده نیز ساخته می شوند که بیشتر مصارف تزئینی دارند.

امروزه نوشیدن هر نوشیدنی در ظرف مخصوص خود به یک سنت تبدیل شده است که بخصوص در میهمانی ها و جشن ها بیشتر مورد توجه است. سرو نوشیدنی معمولا در ظروف شیشه یا کریستال لوکس انجام می شود. جام های کریستالی بسیار شفاف بخشی از مراسمات رسمی هستند و بدون آن ها نمی توان از میهمانان پذیرایی کرد.

منابع:

https://www.acsilver.co.uk/shop/pc/what-is-a-goblet-history-of-the-goblet-d117.htm

https://www.suntory.com/sma/exhibition/2013_4/display.html

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