ظروف برنزی چینی

ظروف برنزی چینی، نماد تمدنی کهن و هنری جاویدان

ظروف برنزی چینی گواهی هستند بر این که مردمان این سرزمین خیلی زود یاد گرفته بودند که چگونه از منابع طبیعی خود برای ساختن آثار هنری و تمدنی بهره ببرند.

ظروف برنزی چینی، نماد تمدنی کهن و هنری جاویدان

در طول حدود دو هزار سال، از قرن هفدهم قبل از میلاد مسیح ، تا دوران سلسله حان (220 بعد از میلاد – 206 قبل از میلاد) چینی ها از بعضی مواد کمیاب و با ارزش نظیر برنز برای ذوب کردن و ساختن ادوات جنگی، سازهای موسیقی، گلدان ها و کاسه های تشریفاتی، و دیگر ظروف برنزی چینی استفاده می کردند.
کوزه ها و ظروف برنزی چینی برای ذخیره کردن مواد جامد یا مایع و یا برای پذیرایی کردن از میهمانان یا برای تقدیم قربانی در مراسمات و جشن های مذهبی به کار می رفته اند.
از آنجایی که برنز ماده ای با دوام و مقاوم می باشد، از طرف شاهان برای ریخته گری ظروف ویژه به افتخار اجداد و پیشینیان شاهزاده ها، و یا وزرایی که کار بزرگی برای کشور انجام داده بودند، ارزشمند تلقی می شد و یا برای باقی گذاشتن خاطره ای برای نسل های آینده استفاده می شد.

تائوتی: نشانی بر روی ظروف برنزی چینی

موضوع نمادینی وجود دارد که در گلدان های تشریفاتی و ظروف برنزی چینی بطور رایجی یافت می شود. این نماد از سلسله های زو و شانگ می آید و ترکیبی از همه مشخصات حیوانی جهان در یک موجود وحشی واحد است. تائوتی بعضی وقت ها به ماسک گرگ وحشی ترجمه می شود.
تائوتی یکی از شگفت انگیز ترین و جالب ترین و اصلی ترین موضوعاتی است که ظروف برنزی چینی را تزئین می کند و به شکلی عالی معانی مذهبی و تشریفاتی چین را نمایش می دهد.
ایستاده بر پایه شعله های سوزنده، این حیوان، با چشم های برآمده، به نظر خشمگین می رسد و دهان بزرگ و باز او دندان های تیز شده چون خنجرش را به نمایش می گذارد. یک جفت گوشواره یا شاخ های سر جمجمه آن و سر پنجه های تیز به نظر می رسد که می خواهد قصد حیوان برای حمله را نشان دهد.
از طرف دیگر این حیوان همانقدر که وحشتناک به نظر می رسد، افسانه و زیبایی را نیز بیدار می کند. اما طرح روی این ظروف برنزی چینی از کجا می آید. برخی استدلال می کنند که این طرح می تواند به فرهنگ لیانگجو بین سال های 3310 و 2250 قبل از میلاد بر گردد.

طبقه بندی انواع ظروف برنزی چینی

ابزار ها و ظروف برنزی چینی را می توان در چهار گروه اصلی طبقه بندی کرد: ظروف غذا خوری، ظروف شراب، ظروف آب و آلات موسیقی. در هر گروه، می توان انواع نا محدود و گوناگونی از اشکال و موضوعاتی را یافت که نشان از تخیل و خلاقیت دوره خود دارد.

ظروف برنزی در دوره های مختلف تاریخ چین

در اوایل دوران شانگ، ظروف برنزی مخصوص شراب و غذا در مجموعه هایی پیدا شدند. این ظروف برنزی چینی در اواخر دوران شانگ رشد یافته و به بلوغ رسیدند. این ظروف برنزی بطور عمده مراسم مذهبی و جشن ها را نمایندگی می کردند و اشیاء نمادین این گونه مراسمات بودند.
به عنوان مثال کوئی ، کاسه ای بود برای گندم پخته شده که از لحاظ ظاهری می توانست در طرح های مختلفی ساخته شده باشد.
در دوران سلسله چوی غربی، مردم به تولید تنگ ها و فنجان های برنزی می پرداختند. هر قدر که مردمان بیشتری نوشتن را می آموختند، ساختن تنگ هایی با شرح حالی از اجداد و نسل های پیشین که اصالت خانواده را نشان می دادند رواج بیشتری پیدا کرد. به علاوه ظروف برنزی چینی بسیاری به شکل حیوانات و اژدها ساخته می شدند.
پس از این دوران اصول ساخت متقارن در هم شکست و ظروف و اشیائی با الگوهای در هم آمیخته ای که دور بدنه ظرف را می گرفت، ساخته شدند.

ظروف برنزی چینی از دوره های باستان اکنون ظروف برنزی چینی از دوره های باستان در اکتشافات باستان شناسی کشف می شوند که با زیبایی خود همگان را شگفت زده می کنند.

در طول هزاران سال، اشیاء برنزی مدفون در زیر زمین در معرض رطوبت و دیگر شرایط زیر زمینی قرار گرفتند و پوششی از جرم سبز زنگ مفرغ روی سطح آن ها را پوشاند. اما این پوشش طبیعی از فلز در برابر آسیب های بیشتر محافظت کرد. رنگ آن نیز که از نوعی قرمز زنده تا سبز زمردی ، یا آبی کبود به شکل های گوناگونی در آمده است زیبایی بیشتری به ظروف برنزی چینی بخشید.

ظروف برنزی چینی معاصر

امروزه ما همچنان می توانیم زیبایی هنر سنتی برنز کاری در معابد را در مجسمه ها و تزئینات اتاق ها پیدا کنیم. همه این اشیا در زمینه خود تاثیر هنر برنز کهن را دارند. طرح های سنتی برنزی همچنان منابع الهام در معماری، مد، و یا مبلمان در عصر حاضر می باشند.
ظروف برنزی چینی نشان می دهند که چگونه خلاقیت و هوش و ذکاوت هنرمندان چین باستان جاودانی شده است.
منبع:

https://www.chinatravel.com/facts/chinese-bronze-wares.htm

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