شیشه ونیزی، تاریخچه و مرکز آن در جزیره مورانو

شیشه ونیزی بیش از 1500 سال پیش ساخته شد و از قرن 13 میلادی به بعد تولید آن در یکی از جزایر ونیز بنام جزیره مورانو متمرکز شد. امروزه مورانو با شیشه هنری مورانو شناخته می شود، اما علاوه بر آوازه هنری خود، این جزیره تاریخی طولانی از ابداعات و نوآوری ها دارد و اولین مرکز مهم تولید شیشه در اروپا بوده است.

 شیشه ونیزی، تاریخچه و مرکز آن در جزیره مورانو

در طول قرن پانزدهم میلادی، شیشه گران مورانو کریستالو را ابداع کردند که نوعی شیشه بسیار شفاف بود و به عنوان مرغوب ترین نوع شیشه در جهان شناخته می شد. همچنین شیشه گران مورانو شیشه ای سفید رنگ ساختند به نام لاتیمو که بسیار شبیه به پرسلان (چینی) بود. تولید کنندگان شیشه ونیزی، بعدها بهترین تولید کنندگان آینه در اروپا شدند.

ونیز توسط امپراطوری روم شرقی کنترل می شد، اما در نهایت به شهر مستقلی تبدیل شد. این شهر به عنوان یک بندر و مرکزی تجاری درخشید. از آن جایی که شیشه گری در سوریه و مصر پیشرفته تر بود، روابط ونیز با خاورمیانه به تولید کنندگان شیشه ونیزی کمک کرد تا مهارت های بیشتری بدست بیاورند.

همچنین تولید شیشه ونیزی در کارخانه ها به قرن هشتم میلادی بر می گردد و بر اساس قانونی از 1291 میلادی همه کارخانجات تولید شیشه در جزیره مورانو متمرکز شدند. از آن جایی که آتش سوزی در کارخانه های شیشه سازی بسیار رایج بود، این قانون گذاشته شده بود تا از شهر در برابر آتش سوزی محافظت کند.

شیشه گران ونیزی دستورالعمل های سری زیادی را برای تولید انواع شیشه ونیزی ابداع کرده بودند و تمرکز همه کارگاه ها و کارخانه ها در جزیره مورانو کمک می کرد تا از این فرمول ها و دستورالعمل های سری بهتر محافظت شده و جلوی سرقت آن ها گرفته شود.

مورانو با بدست آوردن محبوبیت در قرن های پانزدهم و شانزدهم میلادی به سر آمد تولید کنندگان شیشه در اروپا بدل گشت. تسلط ونیز بر دریای مدیترانه به این شهر کمک می کرد تا تقاضای با ثباتی برای آثار هنری شیشه ونیزی فراهم کرده و زمینه نوآوری های بیشتری را فراهم آورد.

شکست در برابر ناپلئون بوناپارت در سال 1797 و اشغال شهر روزهای پر مشقتی را برای تولید کنندگان شیشه مورانو به همراه آورد. شیشه سازی مورانو در دهه 1920 میلادی از نو احیا شد. امروزه مورانو و ونیز جزو جذابیت های توریستی محسوب می شوند، و مورانو مرکز تعداد زیادی از کارگاه های تولید شیشه ونیزی و نیز تعدادی استودیوی هنری است.

موزه شیشه مورانو که در قصر جیوستینیان واقع شده است نمونه هایی از تاریخ شیشه گری از مصر باستان تا عصر حاضر را به نمایش گذاشته است.

کلکسیون شیشه ونیزی

شیشه ونیزی در عصر حاضر

برخی از کارخانه های تاریخی تولید شیشه ونیزی در مورانو همچنان به عنوان برند هایی شناخته شده باقیمانده اند. دو بیاسی (De Biasi)، گابیانی (Gabbiani)، ونینی (Venini)، سالویاتی (Salviati)، باروویر و توسو (Barovier & Toso)، پائولی (Pauly)، برنجو استودیو (Berengo Studio)، سگوسو (Seguso)، فورمیا اینترنشنال (Formia International)، سیمون سندسه (Simone Cenedese)، آلساندرو ماندروزاتو (Alessandro Mandruzzato)، وتریریا دوکال (Vetreria Ducale)، استوان روستتو 1950 (Estevan Rossetto 1950) برخی از برند های معروف مورانو هستند.

اما قدیمی ترین تولید کننده شیشه ونیزی در جزیره مورانو که همچنان به کار خود ادامه می دهد کارگاه آنتیک وتریریا فراتللی توسو (Antica Vetreria Fratelli Toso) می باشد که در سال 1854 تاسیس شده است.

بطور کل، این صنعت رو به کاهش می رود چرا که تقاضا برای آن در حال کم شدن است. آثار تقلبی ( که توسط کارشناسان قابل تشخیص هستند اما توسط افراد عادی اصل نبودن آن ها قابل تشخیص نیست) از آسیا و اروپای شرقی حدود 40 تا 45 درصد از سهم بازار شیشه ونیزی را گرفته است. همچنین سلیقه عمومی تغییر کرده است در حالی که شیشه مورانو همچنان به همان سبک و شکل سابق باقی مانده است.

برای مقابله با اجناس تقلبی، در سال 1994، گروهی از شرکت ها و اشخاص مسئول اقدام به ایجاد یک نشان تجاری کردند که نشان می دهد که اثر در مورانو ساخته شده است. تا سال 2012 تعداد 50 شرکت از نشان شیشه هنری مورانو (Artistic Glass Murano®) برای نشان دادن اصل بودن محصولاتشان استفاده کرده اند.

از آن جایی که شیشه گران باید در دمای بسیار بالا کارکنند، شیشه گری حرفه دشوار و سختی است. بر خلاف 500 سال پیش فرزندان شیشه گران از مزایای ویژه ای برخوردار نیستند. این روزها استخدام شیشه گران جوان کار سختی است. تقلیدهای خارجی و سختی جذب نیروی کار جوان، باعث شده است که متخصصان تولید شیشه ونیزی از حدود 6000 نفر در سال 1990 به کمتر از 1000 نفر در سال 2012 کاهش یافته است.

اگر چه ظروف شیشه ای بسیار زیبایی در دیگر نقاط دنیا در حال ساخت است، اما هیچکدام از آن ها نمی توانند قدمت و اصالت شیشه ونیزی یا شیشه مورانو را داشته باشند.

منبع:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venetian_glass

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